Showing posts with label Aloha | Languagelearning. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Aloha | Languagelearning. Show all posts

Vitaj - This week's language of the week: Slovak!

Slovak (/ˈsloʊvæk, -vɑːk/) or less frequently Slovakian is a West Slavic language (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian). It is called slovenský jazyk (pronounced [ˈslɔʋɛnskiː ˈjazik] ) or slovenčina ([ˈslɔʋɛntʃina]) in the language itself.

Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway and many other countries worldwide.

History

he earliest written records of Slovak are represented by personal and place names, later by sentences, short notes and verses in Latin and Czech documents. Latin documents contain also mentions about a cultivation of the vernacular language. The complete texts are available since the 15th century. In the 15th century, Latin began to lose its privileged position in favor of Czech and cultural Slovak.

The Old Church Slavonic became the literary and liturgical language, and the Glagolitic alphabet, the corresponding script in Great Moravia until 885. Latin continues to be used in parallel. Some of the early Old Church Slavonic texts contain elements of the language of the Slavic inhabitants of Great Moravia and Pannonia, which were called the Sloviene by Slavic texts at that time. The use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by Pope Stephen V in 885; consequently, Latin became the administrative and liturgical language again. Many followers and students of Constantine and Methodius fled to Bulgaria, Croatia, Bohemia, the Kievan Rus' and other countries.

From the 10th century onward, Slovak began to develop independently. Very few written records of Old Slovak remain, mainly from the 13th century onwards, consisting of groups of words or single sentences. Fuller Slovak texts appeared starting from 15th century. The old Slovak language and its development can be research mainly through old Slovak toponyms, petrificated within Latin texts. Examples include crali (1113) > kráľ, king; dorz (1113) > dvorec; grinchar (1113) > hrnčiar, potter; mussenic (1113) > mučeník, martyr; scitar (1113) > štítar, shieldmaker; zaltinc (1156) > zlatník, goldmaker; duor (1156) > dvor, courtyard; and otroč (1156) > otrok, slave, servant. In 1294, the monk Ivanka from Kláštor pod Znievom wrote: "ad parvam arborem nystra slowenski breza ubi est meta". It is important mainly because it contains the oldest recorded adjective Slovak in the Slovak language, whose modern form is slovensky. Up until this point, all adjectives were recorded mainly in Latin, including sclavus, slavus and sclavoniae.

Anton Bernolák, a Catholic priest (1762-1813), published the Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum in 1787, in which he codifies a Slovak language standard that is based on the Western Slovak language of the University of Trnava but contains also some central Slovak elements, e.g. soft consonants ď, ť, ň, ľ and many words. The orthography is strictly diacritical. The language is often called the Bernolák language. Bernolák continued his codification work in other books in the 1780s and 1790s and especially in his huge six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary, in print from 1825-1927. In the 1820s, the Bernolák standard was revised, and Central Slovak elements were systematically replaced by their Western Slovak equivalents.

This was the first successful establishment of a Slovak language standard. Bernolák's language was used by Slovak Catholics, especially by the writers Juraj Fándly and Ján Hollý, but Protestants still wrote in the Czech language in its old form used in Bohemia until the 17th century.

In 1843, young Slovak Lutheran Protestants, led by Ľudovít Štúr, decided to establish and discuss the central Slovak dialect as the new Slovak language standard instead of both Bernolák's language used by the Catholics and the Czech language used by older Slovak Lutheran Protestants. The new standard was also accepted by some users of the Bernolák language led by Ján Hollý, but was initially criticized by the older Lutheran Protestants led by Ján Kollár (died 1852). This language formed the basis of the later literary Slovak language that is used today. It was officially declared the new language standard in August 1844. The first Slovak grammar of the new language will be published by Ľudovít Štúr in 1846.

With the establishment of Czechoslovakia in 1918, Slovak became an official language for the first time in history along with the Czech language. The Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920 and the constitutional law on minorities which was adopted alongside the constitution on the same day established the Czechoslovak language as an official language Since the Czechoslovak language did not exist, the law recognized its two variants, Czech and Slovak. Czech was usually used in administration in the Czech lands; Slovak, in Slovakia. In practice, the position of languages was not equal. Along with political reasons, this situation was caused by a different historical experience and numerous Czech teachers and clerks in Slovakia, who helped to restore the educational system and administration because Slovaks educated in the Slovak language were missing.

Czechoslovakia split into Slovakia and Czechia in 1992. The Slovak language became the official language of Slovakia.

Linguistics

An Indo-European language, Slovak is closely related to other languages such as Czech. It is more distantly related to languages as far apart as English and Ancient Hittite.

Classification

Slovak's full classification is as follows:

Indo-European > Balto-Slavic > Slavic > West Slavic > Czech–Slovak > Slovak

Morphophonemics

Slovak has five (or six) short vowel phonemes. These five can also be distinguished by length, giving a total of 10 contrastive vowel phonemes. There are four diphthongs in the language.

Slovak has 29 consonant phonemes, however. These phonemes are contrasted by place of articulation as well as voicing. Voiceless stops and affricates are made without aspiration.

In the standard language, the stress is always on the first syllable of a word (or on the preceding preposition, see below). This is not the case in certain dialects. Eastern dialects have penultimate stress (as in Polish), which at times makes them difficult to understand for speakers of standard Slovak. Some of the north-central dialects have a weak stress on the first syllable, which becomes stronger and moves to the penultimate in certain cases. Monosyllabic conjunctions, monosyllabic short personal pronouns and auxiliary verb forms of the verb byť (to be) are usually unstressed.

Prepositions form a single prosodic unit with the following word, unless the word is long (four syllables or more) or the preposition stands at the beginning of a sentence.

Syntax

Word order in Slovak is relatively free, since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis.

Slovak nouns are inflected for case and number. There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, and instrumental. The vocative is no longer morphologically marked. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Nouns have inherent gender. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives and pronouns must agree with nouns in case, number, and gender.

Slovak has 9 different personal pronouns, which can also appear in the various cases. The 9 pronouns are given in the nominative case in the table below.

Meaning Pronoun
1s ja
2s informal ty
3s masc on
3s neut ono
3s fem ona
1p my
2p (2s formal) vy
3p (masculine animate, or mixed genders) oni
3p (other) ony

Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished. Several conjugation paradigms exist as follows: Slovak is a pro-drop language, which means the pronouns are generally omitted unless they are needed to add emphasis. Historically, two past tense forms were utilized. Both are formed analytically. The second of these, equivalent to the pluperfect, is not used in the modern language, being considered archaic and/or grammatically incorrect. One future tense exists. For imperfective verbs, it is formed analytically, for perfective verbs it is identical with the present tense. Two conditional forms exist, both formed analytically from the past tense. Most Slovak verbs can have two forms: perfective (the action has ended or is complete) and imperfective (the action has not yet ended).

Orthography

Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters (a-á,ä; c-č; d-ď; dz-dž; e-é; i-í; l-ľ,ĺ; n-ň; o-ó,ô; r-ŕ; s-š; t-ť; u-ú; y-ý; z-ž)

The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are usually pronounced the same way.

Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice – singular versus pekní = nice – plural).

Written Sample:

Všetci ľudia sa rodia slobodní a sebe rovní, čo sa týka ich dostôjnosti a práv. Sú obdarení rozumom a majú navzájom jednať v bratskom duchu.

Spoken sample:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLwMLhr_McQ (interview)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShR1Hp4xFDw (lullaby)

https://youtu.be/qW0GpWnioTQ (wikitongues)

Sources & Further reading

Wikipedia articles on Slovak

What now?

This thread is foremost a place for discussion. Are you a native speaker? Share your culture with us. Learning the language? Tell us why you chose it and what you like about it. Thinking of learning? Ask a native a question. Interested in linguistics? Tell us what's interesting about it, or ask other people. Discussion is week-long, so don't worry about post age, as long as it's this week's language.

Previous LotWs

German | Icelandic | Russian | Hebrew | Irish | Korean | Arabic | Swahili | Chinese | Portuguese | Swedish | Zulu | Malay | Finnish | French | Nepali | Czech | Dutch | Tamil | Spanish | Turkish | Polish | Frisian | Navajo | Basque | Zenen| Kazakh | Hungarian | Greek | Mongolian | Japanese | Maltese | Welsh | Persian/Farsi | ASL | Anything | Guaraní | Catalan | Urdu | Danish | Sami | Indonesian | Hawaiian | Manx | Latin | Hindi | Estonian | Xhosa | Tagalog | Serbian | Māori | Mayan | Uyghur | Lithuanian | Afrikaans | Georgian | Norwegian | Scots Gaelic | Marathi | Cantonese | Ancient Greek | American | Mi'kmaq | Burmese | Galician | Faroese | Tibetan | Ukrainian | Somali | Chechen | Albanian | Yiddish | Vietnamese | Esperanto | Italian | Iñupiaq | Khoisan | Breton | Pashto | Pirahã | Thai | Ainu | Mohawk | Armenian | Uzbek| Nahuatl | Ewe | Romanian | Kurdish | Quechua | Cherokee |Kannada | Adyghe | Hmong | Inuktitut | Punjabi | Slovenian | Guaraní II | Hausa | Basque II| Georgian II| Sami II | Kyrgyz | Samoan | Latvian | Central Alaskan Yup'ik | Cape Verdean Creole | Irish II | Amharic | Cebuano | Akkadian | Bengali | Rohingya | Okinawan | Ojibwe | Assyrian Neo-Aramaic | Tahitian | Greenlandic | Kalmyk | Coptic | Tsez | Warlpiri | Carib | Hopi | Gothic | Ugaritic | Jarawa | German II | Bilua | Scots | Hokkien | Icelandic II | Sranan Tongo | Punjabi II | Burushaski | Dzongkha | Russian II | Hebrew II |Tundra Nenets | Korean II | Oneida | Arabic II | Telugu | Swahili II | Aymara | Standard Chinese | Cheyenne | European Portuguese | Kalaw Lagaw Ya | Swedish II | Pali | Zulu II| Paiwan | Malay II | Finnish II | French II | Nepali II | Lepcha | English | Czech II | Central Atlas Tamazight | Dutch II | Alabama | Tamil II | Chukchi | Turkish II | Sign Language Special | Spanish II | Tuvan | Polish II | Yakkha | Frisian II | Moloko | Navajo II | Palula | Kazakh II | Chakali | Hungarian II | Greek II | Mongolian II | Japanese II | Maltese II | Mende | Welsh II | Tulu | Gibberish | Persian II | Anything II | Konkani | Azerbaijani | Mam | Catalan II | Barry Olsen, interpreter, AMA | Ket | Urdu II | Danish II | Indonesian II | Hawaiian II

submitted by /u/galaxyrocker
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/30mlFtm
via Learn Online English Speaking

How can you add the flairs for the languages you speak

submitted by /u/Sicklightning
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2NoIVRv
via Learn Online English Speaking

Memrise subscription

Hi there!!! I am Indian. I want to learn German. I have seen many people in this sub suggesting to use memrise for learning new languages. Today I saw there is 50% off for yearly subscription on memrise. I want to ask if you guys feel, is it worth to buy 1 year subscription of memrise. And will I be able to learn as many languages as I like with memrise in that duration? Thanks

submitted by /u/adarshtripathi
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2LFOzN6
via Learn Online English Speaking

Learning resources

This might’ve been asked a lot. Sorry. I’ve tried apps that were recommended but they always offer these subscriptions and I don’t know if it’s actually worth it. They even put 50% off for 1 year. (Babbel, Busuu, Memrise)

I already use Duo and I have 1 year with Babbel but I haven’t used it since I never had time but now I just stay at home. And currently Babbel is offering $129 for access to all their languages for a year vs Busuu $40

If anyone has experience with these apps paid or not please let me know how the quality was and if it’s worth it

I’m focusing on Polish and practice Spanish from time to time. I’m already looking for other learning resources as well like books and watching shows. I don’t have a problem with having to practice speaking since I live with my Polish family

submitted by /u/sadmomm
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2Oh1A1a
via Learn Online English Speaking

Tips for getting a C2 Italian level. I’m taking the Plida exam next year!

Hello! I would like some tips for getting a C2 Italian level.

I’m in Italian classes actually and I want to become a translator but in my country for getting the license I need to have a certification that tells that I’m on a C2 level.

I’m definitely taking the Plida exam next year since I’m on an intense Italian course and it moves pretty fast.

I’m a native spanish speaker so Italian is my third language.

Some good tips would be really helpful 🙏🏻 thanks so much!

submitted by /u/meowhappypenguin
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2IiLPDg
via Learn Online English Speaking

Looking for help from Spanish speakers learning Italian

Hello! I'm asking this in every suitable subreddit hoping to find some help! haha :) For my linguistics graduation thesis I need to interview some people, specifically Spanish native speakers who are currently learning Italian. I hope there is anybody here who fits the description and can answer some questions, thank you so much!

submitted by /u/moo-kie
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2LIt0eT
via Learn Online English Speaking

What do you do when you have a creepy obsession with the culture of your target language?

I kind of feel like a weaboo, but for Jewish people. No idea why I even have this obsession. There isn’t some obvious cause like anime for me. Just happened one day all of a sudden. I’ve been studying Hebrew to try to channel that energy somewhere. I admittedly don’t know much about Judaism. I’ve never told any Jewish people about this creepy obsession because I don’t want to be weird like a weaboo.

submitted by /u/DroidinIt
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2M9VTzs
via Learn Online English Speaking

In English, “right” refers to the relative direction, but also means to be correct. In Spanish, “derecho” is describing the right side, but can also mean “upright” or “honest”. Do any other languages share this similar link where the “right” direction is a word that also means “upright”?

Sorry for lack of better wording in my question. Just find this link very interesting, as if maybe it comes down to some ancient rooting tied to a certain spiritual belief ex. right hand of god.

submitted by /u/murkawicz
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2OfSPo0
via Learn Online English Speaking

Best books for kids: 80 лучших книг для детей и подростков, которые советуют читатели «Мела» (text in Russian, but many books are translated into other languages as well)

Best books for kids: 80 лучших книг для детей и подростков, которые советуют читатели «Мела» (text in Russian, but many books are translated into other languages as well) submitted by /u/JohnDoe_John
[link] [comments]


from Aloha | Languagelearning https://www.reddit.com/r/languagelearning/comments/d7lwpp/best_books_for_kids_80_лучших_книг_для_детей_и/
via Learn Online English Speaking

Sparkle - Master computer programming by spaced & repetitive learning.

Perpetual Learning is the greatest constant in a Software Development career (at least if you do care about your career). The technology landscape changes too fast and we need to keep up. That’s just the way it is.

Software programming can be mastered by spaced repetition. And, flashcards are just meant to help you get there.

SPARKLE is free software that lets you create flashcards in respective sections and offers a whole lot more. Thanks for checking it out - https://sparkle.apricity.co.in

SPARKLE - Where you start as a novice; and, leave as a master!

submitted by /u/pruthvikumarbk
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/30k8gCi
via Learn Online English Speaking

What is the best value college level program to learn French?

A 15 week program at U of Laval in Quebec city is $3850, with food and accommodation.

submitted by /u/vannybros
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/32ZBDXY
via Learn Online English Speaking

Conversation practice

New to reddit, newer to this sub, please be gentle I've been studying mandarin and i have a lot of trouble with enfonation over somenthing rather stupid: shyness. Since then, i've realized that i can't speak english, which is way smoother on pronunciation than mandarin, for the same reason. I'm trying to ivercome that fear, so im searching for someone who would like to voice chat to help me with that. In exchange, i can help with portuguese (native speaker), a little spanish or nodejs. Also, i droped a major in latim/greek, so we could at least talk over linguistic curiosities or somenthing

submitted by /u/Tropikaos
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/31I2urB
via Learn Online English Speaking

Difference between Shanghainese and Mandarin?

Hi,

I'm transiting through Shanghai for about 30 hours early next year, and I'd like to learn a few words of the local language so I can head out of the airport, see some sights, and maybe get some food etc. in the city.

Would it be a better idea to learn Shanghainese or Standard Mandarin? Any insights in this would be appreciated, as I know zero about China or its culture. Thanks!!

submitted by /u/AzureWaterDragon
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2OhfdNY
via Learn Online English Speaking

Freshly starting out learning german and advice?

Just started learning german in preparation for a world related relocation for a few years. So far I've been using duolingo for about 20 minutes a day for the past month. I've tried netflix with subtitles but mostly they speak to fast for me to fully comprehend. Any suggestions?

submitted by /u/Vleaw
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2LGdQXf
via Learn Online English Speaking

Best way teach someone with B1 - B2 level English?

Hey, so recently I got into a course that requires C1 level English. Now, I have a C2 so that is a non-issue, but one of my classmates is struggling pretty hard; somehow she managed to get in, but told me she is still at a level where she has to go through the process of translating most things she hears or reads in her head, one by one. I want to help her learn, but I've never taught people who already know all the basics and just need to improve...

What would be the best way to give her a hand?

submitted by /u/Samuel_Mark
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/353bIjY
via Learn Online English Speaking

My progress in learning Chinese for over a year, demonstrated by a lot of colorful language statistics, such as character frequency, language coverage, syllables, HSK levels, and stroke count.

Hello everyone!

This is a project that I have been working on for the last year and would very much like to share finally. The data is located in a Google Spreadsheet, which I would like to elaborate on. I am a person who is very fond of statistics and I want to encourage people to take another look at learning Chinese.

The statistics in the spreadsheet represent my learning of it, not the entire language, so let me start with the piece of it that does represent the entire language and may be interesting to any Chinese language enthusiast. The “Frequency data” sheet is based on Jun Da's Modern Chinese Character Frequency List and lists top 10000 modern Chinese characters by their frequencies in the corpus of texts. In my table, those frequencies are recalculated into a percentage of the language that this character represents. As one might see, the character takes up 4% of the language, making it approximately every 25th one you encounter.

The main body of the document is the “Characters” sheet, where I list the learned characters. They are divided into Sources and into Lessons, corresponding to the apps I was using to study them. For every character, the following information is listed: index number, frequency, HSK level (Chinese language proficiency exam, basically), stroke count, language coverage of this character (abovementioned), total language coverage up to this point, the character itself, its traditional form if it is different, pronunciation, and, of course, meaning. The table is color-coded for frequency and pronunciation.

Apart from the table itself, the first sheet contains all the statistics and the corresponding figures:

  • Firstly, it is calculated how many characters I learned in the first 100, 500, 1000 etc. most popular characters and how much language I would understand if I were to know all of them. Here I must note that knowing X% here stands for “recognizing X% of characters of a random non-specific text”, while, of course, the majority of Chinese language is compound words. Still, with only 100 characters you would technically "recognize" 42% of the text! It also states how many characters I’ve learned and how much language it covers, the rarest character that I know, etc. There is a histogram of the characters and the graph of the language coverage change with each character (reaching saturation, unfortunately).
  • Secondly, it shows how many characters I’ve learned of a certain pronunciation and shows the most common syllables (disregarding the tones), with “shi” having astonishing 29 characters so far. The figures show the popularity of the syllables and the tones.
  • Thirdly, there is a bar chart of HSK levels, showing the percentage of each level and how much of it I have left. So far, I finished HSK3, and I have an exam in December.
  • Fourthly, there is a graph of stroke count, demonstrating a nice bell curve around the value of 8-9 strokes.
  • Lastly, there is a graph of my level of knowledge of characters from Pleco app :)

Other lists are mainly auxiliary, but are simply nice to look at.

The “Words and Phrases” sheet lists, well, words and phrases that I learned, simple as that, that are also color coded for tones.

The “Syllables” sheet is a full version of the pronunciation chart, showing the most popular syllables both considering the tone and disregarding it.

The last two sheets are simply different visualizations of the characters. “Character frequency spreadsheet” is a giant table of all possible characters that shows the character if it is learned and shows an "X" if it isn’t. “Characters by HSK level” is more interesting: the idea is the same, but the characters are grouped by the HSK level. One might find it interesting to see the correlation between the level and the frequency of characters: for example, the 1 level (the most basic one) requires the character “苹” (apple), which is only the 2478th most popular one, while the 168th most popular one, “斯” is only taught in the 6 level, the super-advanced one. Of course, it’s natural, because learning the language requires some basic child-like vocabulary, and while the latter character is very popular, it is used a lot in loaned words. Still, the distribution is of interest.

Overall, I hope that my spreadsheet can make people more interested in Mandarin, especially those who love statistics, because the granular nature of this language makes it perfect for such people.

submitted by /u/areyde
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/30xW5he
via Learn Online English Speaking

Anki app on ios

How the hell can i change my review limit? Ive set the cards to 20 words per say but once i click “30m” or “10m” on them again, i dont see them and anki says ive reached my limit cap, i just want to review them!

submitted by /u/Sui7
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/353lORV
via Learn Online English Speaking

What's the best route for me to become a polygot?

I am a native English speaker and I am conversational in Danish. One of my life goals is to become a polygot. I want to be able to speak Russian and Japanese. I didn't even pick Danish my church picked it for me to serve a mission. I ended up going just long enough to become conversational. I love Danish, but I want to learn one of the other two more then come back to Danish. What would be the best plan of action?

TL;DR Should I finish learning Danish or study the language I want to then come back to Danish?

submitted by /u/latterdaymormon
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2IhGD2t
via Learn Online English Speaking

I need some advice

So I have one question and one concern.

My question is what is the best, most cost effective way to learn a second language? Community college course? Rosetta Stone? Duolingo? A different phone app or PC software?

Also I live in the US where Spanish is the "smart" second language to learn but i personally am not that interested in it. I'd rather learn Korean or Japanese or ASL. Should I learn one of those or should I just learn Spanish?

submitted by /u/JerseyBlinkTheorist
[link] [comments]

from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/32Xzn3M
via Learn Online English Speaking

My experiences: Things you learn on your language learning jouney

My experiences: Things you learn on your language learning jouney submitted by /u/alok578
[link] [comments]


from Aloha | Languagelearning https://ift.tt/2V8PMiQ
via Learn Online English Speaking